Instructional Process Programmes (IP)
(Changing the way the teacher teaches, eg co-operative learning)
The largest number of high-quality studies evaluated instructional process programmes, especially forms of co-operative learning (ES= +0.28 in 7 studies). Mean weighted effect size across 14 studies: +0.21. (An effect size of 0.20 to 0.40 is considered moderate).
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
(Programmes based on ICT)
Studies of ICT find minimal achievement outcomes. Mean weighted effect size across 8 studies: +0.10. (An effect size of less than 0.20 is weak).
Combined ICT and Instructional Process Programmes (ICT + IP)
(Programmes that both change how the teacher teaches, and include ICT)
Our review showed that positive effects were found for READ 180. Mean weighted effect size across 9 studies: +0.22.
Combined Curriculum and Instructional Process Programmes (Curr + IP)
(Programmes that both change how the teacher teaches, and include innovative curricula, eg Success for All and Direct Instruction)
A randomised study of REACH found an effect size of 0.00, and the same study found an effect size of +0.17 for RISE.
* Overall, 36 experimental-control comparisons met the inclusion criteria, of which 7 used random assignment to treatments. No studies of reading curricula qualified, but there were 8 studies of ICT, 16 of instructional process programmes, 10 of combined ICT and instructional process programmes, and 2 of combined curriculum and instructional process programmes. Effect sizes were averaged across studies, weighting by sample size.