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Review methods

For its quantitative analyses of overall achievement, CSRQ identified 18 CSR programmes serving at least 40 schools in at least 3 US states. They then did an extensive search for all types of studies that evaluated these programmes. The evaluations’ validity was rated as inconclusive, suggestive, or conclusive. Conclusive studies met the following criteria:

  • Schools using each programme had to be compared to equivalent control groups
  • Schools had to have pre-test scores or other baseline measures
  • The outcome measures had to be reliable and valid
  • The study duration had to be at least one year

To be considered “suggestive,” a study had to meet the same standards, but could have up to two “non-critical threats to validity.”

CSRQ also looked at evidence in three additional areas:

  • Additional student outcomes
  • The model's design based on research
  • Services and supports provided to schools



CSR programmes - secondary

Educator's summary

As PDF document

As web pages

Top-rated programmes

Programmes with limited evidence

Other programmes

Review methods

Full report (355 pages)

As PDF document