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Review methods

Borman et al. included 29 CSR models that had been replicated in at least 10 schools and had been evaluated in at least one study. They did an extensive search for all types of studies. Studies were included if they met the following criteria:

  • Schools using each programme had to be compared to equivalent control groups
  • Achievement data had to be sufficient to allow effect sizes to be computed
  • Schools had to be in the US
  • Pupils had to be in the regular education programme

Programmes were assigned to categories based on a combination of three criteria (Borman et al., 2003, p. 154):

  • Quality of evidence: Does the CSR model have research evidence from control-group studies and third-party control group studies?
  • Quantity of evidence: Does the CSR model have a relatively large number of studies? (10 studies overall and 5 third-party studies were required to be in the top category)
  • Statistically significant and positive results: Does the evidence from control-group studies show effects that are significantly positive?

The full report

For the full report, which this review summarises, see Borman, G.D., Hewes, G.M., Overman, L.T., & Brown, S. (2003) Review of Educational Research Vol. 73, No. 2, pp. 125-230.

CSR programmes - primary and secondary

Educator's summary

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Top-rated programmes

Programmes with limited evidence

Other programmes

Review methods

Full report (106 pages)

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