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Review methods

For its quantitative analyses of overall achievement, CSRQ identified the education service providers serving the largest numbers of schools and districts in the US. They then did an extensive search for all types of studies that evaluated these programmes. The evaluations’ validity was rated as inconclusive, suggestive, or conclusive. Conclusive studies met the following criteria:

  • Schools using each programme had to be compared to equivalent control groups
  • Schools had to have pre-test scores or other baseline measures
  • The outcome measures had to be reliable and valid
  • The study duration had to be at least one year

To be considered “suggestive,” a study had to meet the same standards, but could have up to two “non-critical threats to validity.”

CSRQ also looked at evidence in three additional areas:

  • Additional pupil outcomes
  • The model's design based on research
  • Services and supports provided to schools

The full report

The full report, which this review summarises , was produced by the Comprehensive School Reform Quality Center (CSRQ), American Institutes for Research.

Education Service Providers

Educator's summary

As PDF document

As web pages

Top-rated programmes

Programmes with limited evidence

Other programmes

Review methods

Full report (112 pages)

As PDF document